In this part of the constellation series, we'll talk about the unclear constellation of Boötes (Boōtēs, Βοώτης), the herdsman. The ö (or ō) serves as a diaeresis, not an umlaut, meaning that each 'o' is to be pronounced separately. Who the constellation represents is about as clear as who the constellation Auriga represents: not clear at all. The options: Arcas, Ikários, and a random ploughman who drove the oxen in the constellation Ursa Major, are the most likely contestants.
The constellation's name means 'oxen-driver'; the ancient Hellens saw the constellation we now call the 'Big Dipper' as a cart with oxen. Logically, this view influenced the meaning given to the constellation by Ptolomy. Who this ox-driver was, is unclear, though. It may have been Boötes himself, but in a society where agriculture was a way of life, the ox-driver stands for every ox-driver of ancient Hellas; the base workman of society. Boötes may also have been the man who invented the plow and was placed in the sky for his contribution to ancient Hellenic society.
A second interpretation for the source of Boötes is given to us by Latin author, Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC – AD 17) is that of Ikários (Ἰκάριος), a grape farmer from Athens who was trained by Dionysos. Ikários is not to be confused with Íkaros from mythology, the son of Daidalos. This Ikários was such a fine winemaker that he could produce wine so strong, those who drank it appeared to be poisoned. His skill turned out to be his undoing; Íkaros was killed by those who drank his wine, thinking the wine maker was out to kill them. His daughter Erigone was taken to his body by the family hound, Maera, whereupon both she and the dog committed suicide by hanging. It may have been that Dionysos was so angry over the murder and the following suicides, He punished Athens by making all of the city's maidens commit suicide in the same way. Zeus, stricken by the events, placed all of them in the sky; Ikários as Boötes, Erigone as Virgo, and Maera as Canis Major, Canis Minor or the star, Procyon.
The third explanation on the story behind the constellation, is that the constellation represents Arcas (Ἀρκάς), son of Zeus and Kallistô (Καλλιστω). After Arcas was born, Hera caught wind of the affair and turned Kallistô into a bear. Alternatively, Kallistô was a priestess of Artemis, and Artemis punished her for losing her virginity by turning her into a bear. Because of the metamorphosis, the boy was raised by his maternal grandfather Lycaon. Due to his close relation with the Theos Zeus, it came to be that Zeus ate at his table one night. Lycaon decided to test the King of the Theoi, to see if He was worth the title. To accomplish this, Lycaon killed his grandson and prepared a meal with his remains. Zeus realized what had happened as soon as he was served the meal and was beyond angry. Lycaon was transformed into a (were-)wolf and Zeus restored His son's body and life. When Arcas grew up, he went out to hunt and found a beautiful bear. He chased her through the woods. The bear--his transformed mother Kallistô--ran towards him as soon as she recognized her son. Arcas was terrified and raised his bow to shoot her. Zeus intervened swiftly and placed Kallistô and her son in the sky. Kallistô became Ursa Major and Arcas either Ursa Minor or Boötes. A furious Hera asked Tethys to chain the two to the night's sky, so that the constellations would never sink below the horizon and receive water. The Hellenic name for Boötes, 'Arctophylax', can also mean 'Bear Watcher'.
Boötes is visible at latitudes between +90° and −50°. It is best visible at 21:00 (9 p.m.) during the month of June.